How to Assess the Inter-Method (Parallel-Forms) Reliability of Ratings Made on Ordinal Scales: Emergency Severity Index (Version 3) and Canadian Triage Acuity Scale

Paul R. Yarnold

Optimal Data Analysis, LLC

An exact, optimal (“maximum-accuracy”) psychometric methodology for assessing inter-method reliability for measures involving ordinal ratings is used to evaluate and compare two emergency medicine triage algorithms—both of which classify patients into one of five ordinal categories. Ten raters independently evaluated the identical set of 200 patients, five with each algorithm. UniODA revealed moderate levels of inter-method agreement, which is theoretically consistent with recent findings of moderate inter-observer reliability for triage ratings derived using both algorithms.

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How to Assess Inter-Observer Reliability of Ratings Made on Ordinal Scales: Evaluating and Comparing the Emergency Severity Index (Version 3) and Canadian Triage Acuity Scale

Paul R. Yarnold

Optimal Data Analysis, LLC

An exact, optimal (“maximum-accuracy”) psychometric methodology for assessing inter-observer reliability for measures involving ordinal ratings is used to evaluate and compare two emergency medicine triage algorithms—both of which classify patients into one of five ordinal categories. Ten raters independently evaluated the identical set of 200 patients, five with each algorithm. Analysis revealed moderate levels of inter-observer reliability, indicating that prior estimates of almost perfect inter-observer reliability obtained for the present data using suboptimal statistical methods are untenable.

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Finding Joy in the Past, Present, and Future: The Relationship Between Type A Behavior and Savoring Beliefs Among College Undergraduates

Fred B. Bryant & Paul R. Yarnold

Optimal Data Analysis, LLC

Prior research investigating savoring behaviors and Type A behavior (TAB) found that extreme Type A undergraduates are most likely to score in the highest quintile on self-congratulation, and in the lowest three quintiles on memory-building. This study used scores on past-, present-, and future-focused savoring beliefs to discriminate 117 extreme Type A versus 131 extreme Type B college undergraduates. Univariate statistical analysis conducted via UniODA revealed that compared to extreme Type Bs, extreme Type As had significantly greater reminiscence (past focus) and anticipation (future focus) scores, and also had marginally greater savor the moment (present focus) scores. Multivariate analysis via CTA identified a single-attribute model involving a three-branch parse: extreme Type Bs are substantially more likely than extreme Type As to score at lowest levels on anticipation; extreme As and Bs are comparably likely to score at moderate levels on anticipation; and extreme Type As are modestly more likely than extreme Type Bs to score at the highest levels on anticipation.

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Type A Behavior, Pessimism and Optimism Among College Undergraduates

Fred B. Bryant & Paul R. Yarnold

Optimal Data Analysis, LLC

This study used scores on measures of dispositional optimism and pessimism to discriminate 117 extreme Type A versus 131 extreme Type B college undergraduates. Consistent with a priori hypotheses the analysis revealed that Type As were significantly less pessimistic, and significantly more optimistic, than Type Bs.

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“A Statistical Guide for the Ethically Perplexed” (Chapter 4, Panter & Sterba, Handbook of Ethics in Quantitative Methodology, Routledge, 2011): Clarifying Disorientation Regarding the Etiology and Meaning of the Term Optimal as Used in the Optimal Data Analysis (ODA) Paradigm

Paul R. Yarnold

Optimal Data Analysis, LLC

The authors of Chapter 4 complain that use of the word “optimal” in the name Optimal Data Analysis (ODA) is unethical because it implies that alternative data analysis methods are less than optimal. The present Errata note addresses this misunderstanding.

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“Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of Patients with AIDS-Related Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia: An Example of Hierarchically Optimal Classification Tree Analysis” (Yarnold et al., Statistics in Medicine, 1997, 16, 1451-1463): Corrected Illustration of CTA Model

Paul R. Yarnold

Optimal Data Analysis, LLC

The lead note in the Errata section of Optimal Data Analysis presents the corrected illustration of the first CTA model published in the field of medicine, two decades ago.

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Type A Behavior and Savoring Among College Undergraduates: Enjoy Achievements Now—Not Later

Fred B. Bryant & Paul R. Yarnold

Optimal Data Analysis, LLC

Recent research tested the a priori hypothesis that Type A Behavior (TAB) undermines enjoyment of leisure time, and that this effect is mediated by savoring responses which hamper enjoyment. Findings suggested that the hypothesized A-B differences in savoring reflect differences in perfectionism rather than in time urgency. The present study uses the same sample to compare 117 extreme Type A and 131 extreme B undergraduates on ten dimensions of savoring assessed for a performance-related stimulus. Findings revealed Type As focus on how proud they are and impressed others are, but are only moderately to weakly involved in actively storing positive memories for later recall, or in reminiscing about prior positive events.

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